Lantus insulin is considered a long-acting insulin, with a half-life of 12 hours. It is the brand name for insulin glargine and has the potential to function for up to 24 hours. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that the duration of action is between 10.8 to about 24 hours. It can only be used subcutaneously for patients that are 17 years or older with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus or for patients over 6 years old with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin glargine is actually a human insulin analog that does not dissolve easily in the body, which has a somewhat neutral pH. However, it dissolves easily in the Lantus injection solution because it is highly acidic. When this solution is injected into the body, it is neutralized, and insulin glargine precipitates. This results in a slow and controlled release of insulin glargine throughout the day. This drawn-out release enables patients to require only one dose per day, as a dose fulfils the basal insulin requirement of our body. Although this is the proposed mechanism of action of Lantus, it is possible that there are some individual variations that may influence the effects in different patients. Because of this, the dose and timing must be adjusted on an individual-basis by a medical professional. In any case, patients should also monitor their own blood glucose level to ensure that they remain within the acceptable blood sugar level range.
Lantus is available as a clear and colorless solution with no visible particles. Since it has the potential to lower blood sugar to dangerous levels, it is advisable that users of Lantus are able to identify the early warning signs and symptoms of low blood sugar levels, which include excessive sweating, tremors, muscle weakness, blurred vision, dizziness, and nausea. Patients should always bring a pack of candy or sweet drinks with them so that they may use them if any of these symptoms occur.